Individual pages in this website on the following topics:

A History of Sanitation >
The Nutrient Cycle >
Our Process >
Recycling >
The Controversy >




There are a number of websites detailing the history of human manure. In a Library Resource website there is a article written by Abby A. Rockefeller. It is in three parts:
Part One >
Part Two >
Part Three >



The toilet and bathroom as we know it has been around only for slightly more than 100 years. If you are interested in the development of the toilet and bathroom here is an excellent article.
A Brief History of the Toilet >




Recently there has been much attention placed on the toilet. This attention is due to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation creating a competition to reinvent the toilet. Here are the links to this story.
CBC News: Bill Gates launches toilet reinvention crusade >
Business Insider: 7 Toilets that could Change the World >


Another area of interest are biogas systems.

Biogas has been produced in China beginning in the late 1900's.

City Farmer:  Anaerobic Digestion in Rural China >

Environment360: China Turns to Biogas to Ease lmpact of Factory Farms >

Wikipedia:  Biogas>



The Humanure Handbook: A guide to Composting Human Manure by Joseph C. Jenkins
the most comprehensive, up-to-date and thoroughly researched book on the topic of composting human manure available anywhere. It includes a review of the historical, cultural and environmental issues pertaining to "human waste," as well as an in depth look at the potential health risks related to humanure recycling, with clear instructions on how to eliminate those dangers in order to safely convert humanure into garden soil. Read this book online >

The Big Necessity: The unmentionable World of Human Waste and Why it Matters by Rose George
The Big Necessity takes aim at the taboo, revealing everything that matters about how people do—and don’t—deal with their own waste. Moving from the deep underground sewers of Paris, London, and New York—an infrastructure disaster waiting to happen—to an Indian slum where ten toilets are shared by 60,000 people, Rose George stops along the way to explore the potential saviors: China’s five million biogas digesters, which produce energy from waste; the heroes of third world sanitation movements; the inventor of the humble Car Loo; and the U.S. Army’s personal lasers used by soldiers to zap their feces in the field.  Article about Rose George >

Holy Shit: Managing Manure To Save Mankind by Gene Logsdon
Contrary farmer Gene Logsdon provides the inside story of manure-our greatest, yet most misunderstood, natural resource. He begins by lamenting a modern society that not only throws away both animal and human manure-worth billions of dollars in fertilizer value-but that spends a staggering amount of money to do so. This wastefulness makes even less sense as the supply of mined or chemically synthesized fertilizers dwindles and their cost skyrockets. In fact, he argues, if we do not learn how to turn our manures into fertilizer to keep food production in line with increasing population, our civilization, like so many that went before it, will inevitably decline.
The book is available on Amazon > .